Storage
Virtual storage devices are just like physical storage devices.
The virtual storage devices you create in the DCD are provisioned and hosted at one of the IONOS physical data centers. Virtual storage devices are used exactly the same way as physical storage devices and can be configured and managed within the server's operating system.
A virtual storage device is equivalent to an iSCSI block device and behaves exactly like direct-attached storage. IONOS block storage is managed completely apart from servers, and thus easily scaled. You can assign a hard disk image to each storage device through DCD (or API). You can use one of IONOS images, your own image, or a snapshot created with DCD (or API).

Storage options

You have a choice of hard disk drive (HDD) and solid-state drive (SSD) storage technologies.

HDD storage

Performance:
    Read/write speed, sequential: 200 Mb/s at 1 MB block size
    Read/write speed, full random:
      Regular: 1,000 IOPS at 4 kB block size
      Burst: 2,500 IOPS at 4 kB block size
Limits:
    Minimum: 1 GB
    Maximum: 16 TB
    2 TB/Volume by default

SSD storage

The performance of SSD storage directly relates to the volume size.
To get the full benefits of high-speed SSD performance, we recommend that you book SSD storage units of at least 100 GB. You can use smaller volumes for your VDC, but performance will be suboptimal compared to that of the larger units. When storage units are configured in DCD, expected performance is predicted based on the volume size (Inspector > Settings).
For storage volumes of more than 300 GB performance is limited to 37,500 IOPS for read and 25,000 IOPS for write.
Performance:
    Read/write speed, sequential: 1 Mb/s pro GB at 1 MB block size
    Read speed, full random: 75 IOPS per GB at 4 KB block size
    Write speed, full random: 50 IOPS per GB at 4 KB block size
Limits:
    Minimum: 100 GB
    Maximum:
      1 TB/Storage,
      1 SSD-Storage/VM
      Read/write speed, sequential: 500 Mb/s per volume at 1 MB block size
      Read speed, full random: 37,500 IOPS at 4 KB block size
      Write speed, full random: 25,000 IOPS at 4 KB block size

Availability zones

Secure your data, enhance reliability, and set up high-availability scenarios by deploying your virtual servers and storage devices across multiple Availability Zones.
Assigning different Availability Zones ensures that redundant modules reside on separate physical resources at IONOS.
For example, a server or a storage device assigned to Availability Zone 1 resides on a different resource than a server or storage device assigned to Availability Zone 2.
You have the following Availability Zone options:
    Zone 1
    Zone 2
    A - Auto (default; the system automatically assigns an Availability Zone upon provisioning)
    Server Availability Zone can also be changed after provisioning
    Storage device Availability Zone is set upon first provisioning and cannot subsequently be changed; you could, however, create a snapshot and then use it to provision a storage device with a new Availability Zone.

Authentication

The first time you create a storage unit based on a public image, you must select at least one authentication method. Without authentication, the image on the storage unit cannot be provisioned. The authentication methods available depend on the IONOS operating system image you select.
Authentication methods depend on the operating system
Authentication methods
SSH key
Password
IONOS Linux images
+
+
IONOS Windows images
-
+
We recommend using both SSH and a password with IONOS Linux images; this way, you will be able to log in with the Remote Console. It is not possible to provision a storage unit with a Linux image without specifying a password or an SSH key.

Passwords

Provisioning a storage device with a Windows image is not possible without specifying a password. It must be between 8 and 50 characters long and may only consist of numbers (0 - 9) and letters (a-z, A - Z). For IONOS Linux images, you can specify a password along with SSH keys, so that you can also log in without the SSH, such as with the Remote Console. The password is set as the root or administrator password with corresponding permissions.

SSH (Secure Shell)

To use SSH, you must have an SSH key pair consisting of public and private keys. The private key is installed on the client (the computer you use to access the server), and the public key is installed on the (virtual) instance (the server you wish to access). IONOS SSH feature requires that you have a valid SSH public/private key pair and that the private key is installed as appropriate for your local operating system.
If you set an invalid or incorrect SSH key, it must be corrected on the side of the virtual machine.
See also: SSH keys​

Configure storage

Hard disk space is booked using storage elements in your virtual data center. Storage name, Availability Zone, Size, OS image and boot options are configured for each element.

Prerequisites

    You are logged in (?)​
    You are the contract owner or an administrator (?)​
      or -
    You have permissions to edit the required data center (?)​
    The VDC is open (?)​

How to configure storage

    Drag a storage element of the required storage type (HDD or SSD) from the Palette onto the required server in the Workspace to connect them to each other.
      or -
    In the Workspace, select the server and add a new storage volume Inspector > Storage tab > HDD or Inspector > Storage tab > SSD
Storage type cannot be changed after provisioning.
    To configure the storage:
      Name: Enter a name that is unique within your VDC.
      Availability Zone: Select a zone in which you want the storage device to be maintained. When you select A - Auto, our system assigns the optimal Zone.
      The Availability Zone cannot be changed after provisioning.
      Size in GB: Specify the required storage capacity; the size can be increased after provisioning, even while the server is running, as long as this is supported by its operating system.
      β„Ή It is not possible to reduce the storage size after provisioning.
      Image: You can select one of IONOS images or snapshots, or use your own. Only images and snapshots that you have access to are available for selection. Since provisioning does not require you to specify an image, you can also create empty storage volumes.
      Authentication: (?)
      Password: Set the root or administrator password for your server according to the guidelines. This is recommended for both operating system types. (?)
      SSH Keys: Select an SSH key stored in the SSH Key Manager. (?)
      Ad-hoc Key: Copy and paste the public part of your SSH key into this field. (?)
      Boot from the device: Select the storage volume from which the server is to boot by clicking on BOOT or Make Boot Device.
        or -
      When adding a storage element using the Inspector, select the appropriate check box in the Add Storage dialog box.
      If you wish to boot from the network, set this on the server. (Server in the Workspace > Inspector > Storage tab).
      Bus type (Server in the Workspace > Inspector > Storage tab): Select VirtIO or IDE.
      It is recommended to always use VirtIO to benefit from the full performance of InfiniBand. IDE is intended for troubleshooting if, for instance, the operating system has no VirtIO drivers installed. In this case, Windows usually displays a "blue screen" when booting.
      Live Vertical Scaling: After provisioning, the Live Vertical Scaling properties of the selected image are displayed. (?)
      You can make changes to these properties later, which will require a reboot. You can set the properties of your uploaded images before you apply them to storage volumes in the Image Manager. (?)
    (Optional) Add and configure further storage elements.
    (Optional) Make further changes to your data center.
    Provision your changes
    The storage device is provisioned and configured according to your settings.

Delete storage

When you no longer need snapshots or images, you should remove them from your cloud infrastructure to avoid unnecessary costs.
For backup purposes, you can create a snapshot before deleting it.

Prerequisites

    You are logged in (?)​
    You are the contract owner or an administrator (?)​
      or -
    You have permissions to edit the required data center (?)​
    The VDC is open (?)​

How to delete storage

    In the Workspace, select the storage device you wish to delete.
    To delete the storage device
      Open the context menu of the element and select Delete.
        or -
      Select the element and press the Del key.
    Provision your changes
    The storage device is deleted and no longer available.
When you delete a server and its storage devices, or the entire data center, their backups are not deleted automatically. Only when you delete a Backup Unit will the backups it contains actually be deleted.
When you no longer need the backups of deleted VMs, you should delete them manually in the Backup Unit Manager to avoid unnecessary costs.
Learn how to:

Installing Windows VirtIO drivers

VirtIO provides an efficient abstraction for hypervisors and a common set of IO virtualization drivers. It was chosen to be the main platform for IO virtualization in KVM. There are up to four drivers available:
    Balloon - The balloon driver affects the memory management of the guest OS.
    VIOSERIAL - The serial driver, affects single serial device limitation within KVM.
    NetKVM - The network driver, affects Ethernet network adapters.
    VIOSTOR - The block driver, affects SCSI based controllers.
Windows-based systems require VirtIO drivers primarily to recognize the VirtIO (SCSI) controller and network adapter presented by the IONOS KVM-based hypervisor. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways depending on the state of the virtual machine.
IONOS provides pre-configured Windows Server images that already contain the required VirtIO drivers and optimal network adapter configuration.
We also offer a VirtIO ISO to simplify the driver installation process for Windows 2008 R2, Windows 2012 & Windows 2012 R2 systems. This ISO can be found in the CD-ROM drop-down menu under β€œIONOS Images” which can be used for new Windows installations (only required for customer-provided images), as well as Windows images that have been migrated from other environments (e.g. via VMDK upload).
Always use the latest Windows VirtIO driver from IONOS.

Prerequisites

    You are logged in (?)​
    You are the contract owner or an administrator (?)​
      or -
    You have permissions to edit the required data center (?)​
    The VDC is open (?)​

How to install window VirtIO drivers

1. Add a CD-ROM drive and open the installation menu:
    In the Workspace, select the required server.
    In the Inspector, open the Storage tab.
    Click on CD-ROM to add a CD-ROM drive.
    In the dialog box that appears, chose an IONOS image with drivers (windows-VirtIO-driver-<version>.iso) and select the Boot from Device check box.
    Confirm the action by clicking on Create CD-ROM Drive.
    Provision your changes
    Connect to the server using Remote Console. (?)​
    The installation menu opens.
    Follow the options provided by the installation menu.
    Remove the CD-ROM drive as soon as the menu asks you to do so, and shut down the VM.
    In DCD, specify from which storage to boot.
    Restart the server using the DCD. (?)​
    Provision your changes
    Connect to the server again using the Remote Console to make further changes.
2. Set optimal values:
    For an optimal configuration, apply the following settings:
MTU:
Internal network interface: 1500 MTU
External network interface: 1500 MTU
Checksum Offload: Offloading for Receive (RX) and Transmit (TX):
Offload Tx IP checksum: Enabled
Offload Tx LSO: Enabled
Offload Tx TCP checksum: Enabled
Fix IP checksum on LSO: Enabled
Hardware checksum: Enabled
3. Disable TCP Offloading/Chimney:
    Default:
    netsh int tcp set global chimney=disabled
    Everything:
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rss=disabled
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chimney=disabled
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congestionprovider=none
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netdma=disabled dca=disabled
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ecncapability=disabled
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timestamps=enabled
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    Alternatively, modify the Windows registry:
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[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters]
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"EnableTCPA"=dword:00000000
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"EnableRSS"=dword:00000000
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"EnableTCPChimney"=dword:00000000
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The installation will be active after a restart. The following command can be used to verify the status of the configuration above.
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netsh interface tcp show global
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4. Set correct values for any network adapter automatically:
You can apply the correct settings for any network adapter automatically by executing the following commands in PowerShell:
    Request network adapter information Get-NetAdapter
The following output is displayed:
    In the Name field, use the output value instead of "Ethernet".
    Create a new file using PowerShell ISE (File > New).
    Copy and paste the following code and make sure to change $name ="Ethernet" properly:
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Clear-Host
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$name ="Ethernet"
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Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty-name $name -RegistryKeyword "MTU" -Registryvalue 1500
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Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty -name $name -RegistryKeyword "*rss" -Registryvalue 0
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Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty -name $name -RegistryKeyword"*TCPChecksumOffloadIPv4" -Registryvalue 0
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Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty -name $name -RegistryKeyword "*UDPChecksumOffloadIPv4" -Registryvalue 0
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netsh interface tcp set global chimney=disabled
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netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=normal
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netsh interface tcp set global netdma=disabled
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netsh interface tcp set global dca=disabled
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netsh interface tcp set global ecncapability=disabled
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netsh interface tcp set global timestamps=enabled
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Get-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty
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netsh int tcp show global
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    Click File > Execute.
    The following output is displayed:
    Check the settings.
    Restart the VM.
    The correct settings are applied automatically.
5. Activate TCP/IP auto-tuning:
TCP/IP auto-tuning ensures optimal data transfer between client and server by monitoring network traffic and automatically adjusting the "Receive Window Size". You should always activate this option to ensure the best performance.
    Activate:
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netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=normal
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    Check:
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netsh interface tcp show global
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Last modified 1mo ago