Images and snapshots

We, at IONOS, provide you with a number of ready-made images that you can use immediately. You can, however, use your own images, which you need to upload through our FTP access. Your IONOS account supports many HDD images types as well as ISO images with which you can directly install an operating system or software by means of an emulated CD-ROM drive.

Image types

The following image types can be uploaded:

  • HDD images

    • VMWare disk image

    • QEMU QCOW image

    • Microsoft disk image

    • UDF file system

    • RAW disk image

    • Parallels disk image

  • ISO images

    • ISO 9660 CD-ROM

Snapshots

Snapshots are images generated from already provisioned storages that you can use for other storages. This feature is useful, for example, to quickly roll out more virtual machines that have the same or similar configuration. You can use snapshots on HDD and SSD storage, regardless of the storage type for which the snapshot was created. To create snapshots, users who are not contracted owners or administrators need the appropriate privileges.

Image manager

In the Image Manager you can manage your uploaded images and the snapshots you created. You can specify who may access and use them. Only those images and snapshots are displayed to which you have access yourself.

To open the Image Manager, go to: Menu Bar > Resource Manager > Image Manager

There you can do the following:

Managing permissions

Permissions are required for certain actions in the DCD.

These are as follows:

  • Create a data center.

  • Create snapshots.

  • Reserve IP blocks.

  • Access Activity-Log-API.

  • Create Cross Connect elements.

  • Use object storage.

  • Create Managed Kubernetes Clusters.

Contract owners and administrators have these permissions by default. They can manage and assign them to other users in the User Manager.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged on to the DCD. (?)​

  • You are the contract owner or an administrator. (?)​

How to manage permissions

  • Create a new group. (?)​

    • or -

  • Open an existing group.

    Menu Bar > Resource Manager > User Manager > Groups

  • Select the required group.

  • Grant permission:

    • In the Privileges tab, activate the check box of the appropriate privilege.

    • In the Members tab, add users to the group that you wish to authorize. (?)​

    Members of the selected group now have the required authorization.

  • Remove permission:

    • Remove user(s) from the group with the privilege in question.

      • or -

    • Deactivate the check box of the privilege for the group.

    The privilege is no longer available to the selected users.

Creating a snapshot

You can create snapshots from provisioned SSD and HDD storages. Regardless of the underlying storage type (HDD or SSD), snapshots use up HDD storage space assigned to an IONOS account. Therefore, if you want to create a snapshot, you should have enough HDD memory available.

The VM can be switched on or off when creating a snapshot. To ensure that data still in the RAM of the VM is included in the snapshot, it is recommended to synchronize the data (with sync under Linux) or shut down the guest operating system (with shutdown -h now under Linux) before creating the snapshot.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged on to the DCD. (?)​

  • You are the contract owner or an administrator. (?)​

    • or -

  • You have the permission "Create snapshot". (?)

  • You have sufficient memory available.

How to create a snapshot

  • Open the required data center. (?)​

  • (Optional) Shut down the server. Creating a snapshot while the server is running takes longer.

  • Open the context menu of the storage element and select Create snapshot.

    The Create snapshot opens.

  • (Optional) Change the name and description of the snapshot.

  • Click on Create Snapshot to start the process.

    The snapshot is being created. It will be available in the Image Manager and in My own Images > Snapshots.

You can now:

Uploading an image

We offer FTP access for each of our data center locations so that you can upload your own images.

An image is only available at the location where it was uploaded.

In order to upload an image, you must set up a connection from your computer to the IONOS FTP server first. This can be done using an FTP client such as FileZilla or tools from your operating system. Then copy the image to the FTP upload of the IONOS data center location where you wish to use the image.

After uploading, the image will be converted to a RAW format. As a result, dynamic HDD images are always used at their maximum size. A dynamic image, for example, whose file size is 3 GB, but which comes from a 50 GB hard disk, will be a 50 GB image again after conversion to the IONOS format.

The disk space required for an uploaded image will not affect the resources of your IONOS account and not be charged.

FTP addresses

Frankfurt am Main (DE): ftp://ftp-fra.ionos.com​

Karlsruhe (DE): ftp://ftp-fkb.ionos.com​

Berlin (DE): ftp://ftp-txl.ionos.com​

London (GB): ftp://ftp-lhr.ionos.com​

Las Vegas (US): ftp://ftp-las.ionos.com​

Newark (US): ftp://ftp-ewr.ionos.com​

LogroΓ±o (ES): ftp://ftp-vit.ionos.com​

In the DCD, FTP addresses are listed here:

Menu Bar > ? (Help) > FTP Image Upload

  • or -

Menu Bar > Image Manager > FTP Image Upload tab

Characters allowed for file names of images: a-z A-Z 0-9 - . / _ ( ) # ~ + = blanks.

Example: Windows 10

In Windows 10, for example, you can upload an image without additional software as follows:

Setting up FTP access

  • Open Windows Explorer.

  • From the This PC context menu, select Add a network location:

    The wizard for setting up a network address opens.

  • Enter the IONOS FTP address as the location of the website, e. g. ftp://ftp-fkb.ionos.com.

    β„Ή An image is only available at the location where it was uploaded.

  • In the next dialog box, leave the Log on anonymously check box activated.

  • In the next dialog box, enter a name for the connection which will later be visible in Windows Explorer, e. g. upload_fkb.

  • Confirm your entries by clicking on Finish.

    The FTP connection is available in Windows Explorer:

Copying an image to the FTP upload

  • Open the FTP access on your PC.

  • In the login dialog box, enter the credentials of your IONOS account.

    The FTP upload is opened:

  • Copy the image you wish to upload to the folder matching the image type (HDD or iso).

  • As soon as the upload begins, you will receive a confirmation e-mail from IONOS.

    After the upload is finished, the image is available in the Image Manager and in Own Images.

You can now:

Managing access to resources

Users who are not contract owners or administrators need access rights to view, use, or edit resources in a virtual data center. These access rights are assigned to groups and inherited to group members.

Access to the following resources can be managed:

  • Data centers.

  • Images.

  • Snapshots.

  • Private Cross Connects.

  • IP addresses.

  • Managed Kubernetes Clusters.

Access rights

Users can access a resource with the following access rights:

  • Read: Users may see and use but not modify the resource. Read access is automatically granted as soon as a user is assigned to a group with this access right.

  • Edit: Users may modify and delete the resource.

  • Share: Users may share the resource including their access rights with groups to which they belong.

Resource owner

A user who created a resource is the owner of that resource and can specify its access rights.

The owner is shown in the Security tab of a resource.

Access restriction using 2-factor authentication

In addition to enabling access to resources for users of authorized groups only, data centers and snapshots can be even further protected by restricting access to users who have 2-factor authentication activated. Other users cannot see or select these resources - even if they belong to an authorized group.

See also: Manage resource access​

Depending on their role, users can: set access rights

Setting access rights at the resource level

Prerequisites

  • You are the contract owner or an administrator. (?)​

    • or -

  • You have permission to share the required resource. (?)​

  • You need to be a member of the group for which you want to specify the access rights of a resource.

  • You are logged on to the DCD. (?)​

How to set access rights at the resource level

  • Select the required resource:

    • Data Center: Open the data center. (?)​

    • Images: Menu Bar > Resource Manager > Image Manager >Image tab.

    • Snapshots: Menu Bar > Resource Manager > Image Manager > Snapshot tab.

    • IP addresses: Menu Bar > Resource Manager > IP Manager.

    • Cross-Connects: Menu Bar > Resource Manager > Cross Connect Manager.

    • Kubernetes Cluster: Menu Bar > Resource Manager > Kubernetes Manager

  • Select the required resource.

  • Open Security > Visible to Groups.

  • Enable access:

    • From the + Add Group menu, select the required groups.

      Read access is granted. Users may see and use, but not modify the resource.

    • (Optional) Select further permissions ("Edit", "Share"). You may only share permissions that you have yourself.

  • Restrict or disable access:

    • Select the required group.

    • Deactivate the checkbox of the permission.

      Read access is retained.

      • or -

    • Click on Remove group.

      Access is disabled for all members of the selected group.

  • (Optional) To protect the resource (data center, snapshots) more thoroughly by only allowing access to users whose login is secured with 2-factor authentication, activate the 2-Factor Protected check box. (?)​

Setting access rights in the user manager

Contract owners and administrators can also define in the User Manager who may access a resource to what extent.

Prerequisites

  • You are the contract owner or an administrator. (?)​

  • You are logged on to the DCD. (?)​

How to set access rights in the user manager

  • Open the User Manager.

    Menu Bar > Resource Manager > User Manager

Assigning groups to a resource

  • In the Resources tab, select the required resource.

  • Open the Visible to Groups tab.

  • Enable access:

    • From the + Add Group list, add the required groups.

    • (Optional) To enable write access or sharing of a resource, activate the respective check box.

  • Disable access:

    • Deactivate the checkbox of the permission.

      • or -

    • Click on Remove Group.

  • (Optional) To protect the resource (data center, snapshots) more thoroughly by only allowing access to users whose login is secured with 2-factor authentication, activate the 2-Factor Protected check box. (?)​

Assigning resources to a group

  • In the Groups tab, select the required group.

  • Open the Resources of Group tab.

  • Enable access:

    • Select the required resource by clicking on + Grant Access.

      This enables read access to the selected resource.

    • (Optional) To enable write access or sharing of a resource, activate the respective check box.

  • Disable access:

    • Select the required resource.

    • Deactivate the check box of the appropriate permission.

      • or -

    • Click on Revoke Access.

Installing Windows virt-I/O drivers

Virtio provides an efficient abstraction for hypervisors and a common set of I/O virtualization drivers. It was chosen to be the main platform for I/O virtualization in KVM. There are up to four drivers available:

  • Balloon - The balloon driver affects the memory management of the guest OS.

  • VIOSERIAL - The serial driver, affects single serial device limitation within KVM.

  • NetKVM - The network driver, affects Ethernet network adapters.

  • VIOSTOR - The block driver, affects SCSI-based controllers.

Windows-based systems require VirtIO drivers primarily to recognize the VirtIO (SCSI) controller and network adapter presented by the IONOS KVM-based hypervisor. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways depending on the state of the virtual machine.

IONOS provides pre-configured Windows Server images that already contain the necessary VirtIO drivers and optimal network adapter configuration.

We also offer a VirtIO ISO to easily manage the driver installation process for Windows 2008 R2, Windows 2012 & Windows 2012 R2 systems. This ISO can be found in the CD-ROM drop-down menu under β€œIONOS Images” which can be used for new Windows installations (only required for customer-provided media) as well as Windows images that have been migrated from other environments (e.g. via VMDK upload).

Please ensure that you always use the latest Windows Virt I/O driver provided by us.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged on to the DCD. (?)​

  • You are the contract owner or an administrator. (?)​

    • or -

  • You have permissions to edit the required data center. (?)​

  • The VDC is open. (?)​

How to install Windows virt-I/O drivers

1. Add a CD-ROM drive and open the installation menu:

  • In the Workspace, select the required server.

  • In the Inspector, open the Storage tab.

  • Click on CD-ROM to add a CD-ROM drive.

  • In the dialog box that appears, select the image provided by IONOS including the drivers (windows-VirtIO-driver-<version>.iso) and activate the Boot from Device check box.

  • Confirm the action by clicking on Create CD-ROM Drive.

  • Provision your changes.

  • Connect to the server using the Remote Console. (?)​

    The installation menu opens.

  • Follow the options provided by the installation menu.

  • Remove the CD-ROM drive as soon as the menu asks you to do so and shuts down the VM.

  • In the DCD, specify from which storage to boot.

  • Restart the server using the DCD. (?)​

  • Provision your changes.

  • Connect to the server again using the Remote Console to make further changes.

2. Set optimal values:

  • For an optimal configuration, apply the following settings:

MTU:

Internal network interface: 64000 MTU

External network interface: 1500 MTU

Checksum Offload: Offloading for Receive (RX) and Transmit (TX):

Offload Tx IP checksum: Deactivated

Offload Tx LSO: Deactivated

Offload Tx TCP checksum: Deactivated

Fix IP checksum on LSO: Deactivated

Hardware checksumming: Deactivated

3. Disable TCP offloading/chimney:

  • Default:

    netsh int tcp set global chimney=disabled

  • Everything:

rss=disabled
chimney=disabled
congestionprovider=none
netdma=disabled dca=disabled
ecncapability=disabled
timestamps=enabled
  • Alternatively, modify the Windows registry:

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters]
"EnableTCPA"=dword:00000000
"EnableRSS"=dword:00000000
"EnableTCPChimney"=dword:00000000

The installation will be active after a restart. The following command can be used to verify the status of the configuration above.

netsh interface tcp show global

4. Set correct values for any network adapter automatically:

You can apply the correct settings for any network adapter automatically by executing the following commands in PowerShell:

  • Request network adapter information Get-NetAdapter

The following output is displayed:

  • In the Name field, use the output value instead of "Ethernet".

  • Create a new file using PowerShell ISE (File > New).

  • Copy and paste the following code and make sure to change $name ="Ethernet" properly:

Clear-Host
$name ="Ethernet"
Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty-name $name -RegistryKeyword "MTU" -Registryvalue 1500
Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty -name $name -RegistryKeyword "*rss" -Registryvalue 0
Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty -name $name -RegistryKeyword"*TCPChecksumOffloadIPv4" -Registryvalue 0
Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty -name $name -RegistryKeyword "*UDPChecksumOffloadIPv4" -Registryvalue 0
netsh interface tcp set global chimney=disabled
netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=normal
netsh interface tcp set global netdma=disabled
netsh interface tcp set global dca=disabled
netsh interface tcp set global ecncapability=disabled
netsh interface tcp set global timestamps=enabled
Get-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty
netsh int tcp show global
  • Click on File > Execute.

    The following output is displayed:

  • Check the settings.

  • Restart the VM.

    The correct settings are applied automatically.

5. Activate TCP/IP auto-tuning:

TCP/IP auto-tuning ensures optimal data transfer between client and server by monitoring network traffic and automatically adjusting the "Receive Windows Size". You should therefore always activate this option to avoid performance losses.

  • Activate:

netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=normal
  • Check:

netsh interface tcp show global

Configure live vertical scaling (LVS)

With IONOS LVS you can change the resources of a virtual server during operation without restarting, which means you can add RAM or NICs ("hot plug"). This allows you to react to peak loads quickly without compromising performance.

It depends on the operating system of your VM which resources can be changed without a reboot.

Linux supports the entire scope of IONOS Live Vertical Scaling, whereas Windows is limited to CPU scaling.

Since kernel 2.6.25 Linux has installed the modules by default, but they may have to be activated manually depending on the derivative.

For more information see the Linux virt-I/O page.

Without restarting a server, its resources can be scaled as follows:

Live Vertical Scaling

Upscaling

Downscaling

Resource

Windows

Linux

Windows

Linux

CPU

βœ“

βœ“

x

x

RAM

x

βœ“

x

x

NIC

βœ“

βœ“

βœ“

βœ“

VirtIO

βœ“

βœ“

βœ“

βœ“

For IONOS images, the supported properties are already preset.

After uploading, you can define the properties for your own images before applying them to new storage volumes. The settings must be supported by the image, otherwise, they will not work as expected. After provisioning, you can change the settings directly on the storage device, which does, however, require a restart of the server.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged on to the DCD. (?)​

  • You are the contract owner or an administrator. (?)​

    • or -

  • You have permissions to edit the required data center. (?)​

  • For images and snapshots: You have permissions to edit this resource. (?)​

  • The VDC is open. (?)​

How to configure live vertical scaling

  • Edit the LVS properties of a storage device:

    • Select the storage in the Workspace.

    • Go to the Inspector and modify the LVS properties.

    • Provision your changes.

  • Edit the LVS properties of an image or snapshot:

    • Open the Image Manager.

      Menu Bar > Resource Manager > Image Manager

    • In the Image resp. Snapshot tab, select the resource you want to modify.

    • Modify the settings in the Live Vertical Scaling field.

    • Save your changes.

    Live Vertical Scaling is now available according to your settings.

See also:

Deleting an image or snapshot

If you no longer need a snapshot or image and want to save resources, you can delete it.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged on to the DCD. (?)​

  • You are the contract owner or an administrator. (?)​

    • or -

  • You have permissions to edit this resource. (?)​

How to delete an image or a snapshot

  • Open the Image Manager.

    Menu Bar > Resource Manager > Image Manager

  • To delete a snapshot:

    • Open the Snapshots tab and select the snapshot you would like to delete.

  • To delete an image:

    • Open the Images tab and select the image you would like to delete.

  • Click on Delete.

  • In the dialog that appears, confirm your action by entering your password and clicking OK.

    The selected item is deleted and cannot be restored.